算法设计:从三元树创建双向链表

2021年5月14日15:44:33 发表评论 713 次浏览

本文概述

给定三元树, 从中创建一个双向链表。三叉树就像二叉树一样, 但是没有两个节点, 而是具有三个节点, 即左, 中, 右。

双链列表应包含以下属性–

  1. 三叉树的左指针应充当双向链表的上一个指针。
  2. 三叉树的中间指针不应指向任何东西。
  3. 三叉树的右指针应充当双向链表的下一个指针。
  4. 三叉树的每个节点都在其子树之前插入到双向链表中, 对于任何节点, 将首先插入其左子节点, 然后插入中子节点和右子节点(如果有)。

对于上面的示例, 为下面的树形成的链表应为NULL <-30 <-> 5 <-> 1 <-> 4 <-> 8 <-> 11 <-> 6 <-> 7 <-> 15 <-> 63 <-> 31 <-> 55 <-> 65->空

树

我们强烈建议你最小化浏览器, 然后自己尝试。

这个想法是以类似于二进制二叉树遍历遍历的预整理方式遍历树。在这里, 当我们访问一个节点时, 我们将使用尾指针将其最终插入到双向链表中。我们用来维护所需的插入顺序。然后, 我们以该顺序递归调用左孩子, 中间孩子和右孩子。

以下是此想法的实现。

C ++

//C++ program to create a doubly linked list out
//of given a ternary tree.
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
  
/* A ternary tree */
struct Node
{
     int data;
     struct Node *left, *middle, *right;
};
  
/* Helper function that allocates a new node with the
    given data and assign NULL to left, middle and right
    pointers.*/
Node* newNode( int data)
{
     Node* node = new Node;
     node->data = data;
     node->left = node->middle = node->right = NULL;
     return node;
}
  
/* Utility function that constructs doubly linked list
by inserting current node at the end of the doubly
linked list by using a tail pointer */
void push(Node** tail_ref, Node* node)
{
     //initilize tail pointer
     if (*tail_ref == NULL)
     {
         *tail_ref = node;
  
         //set left, middle and right child to point
         //to NULL
         node->left = node->middle = node->right = NULL;
  
         return ;
     }
  
     //insert node in the end using tail pointer
     (*tail_ref)->right = node;
  
     //set prev of node
     node->left = (*tail_ref);
  
     //set middle and right child to point to NULL
     node->right = node->middle = NULL;
  
     //now tail pointer will point to inserted node
     (*tail_ref) = node;
}
  
/* Create a doubly linked list out of given a ternary tree.
by traversing the tree in preoder fashion. */
Node* TernaryTreeToList(Node* root, Node** head_ref)
{
     //Base case
     if (root == NULL)
         return NULL;
  
     //create a static tail pointer
     static Node* tail = NULL;
  
     //store left, middle and right nodes
     //for future calls.
     Node* left = root->left;
     Node* middle = root->middle;
     Node* right = root->right;
  
     //set head of the doubly linked list
     //head will be root of the ternary tree
     if (*head_ref == NULL)
         *head_ref = root;
  
     //push current node in the end of DLL
     push(&tail, root);
  
     //recurse for left, middle and right child
     TernaryTreeToList(left, head_ref);
     TernaryTreeToList(middle, head_ref);
     TernaryTreeToList(right, head_ref);
}
  
//Utility function for printing double linked list.
void printList(Node* head)
{
     printf ( "Created Double Linked list is:\n" );
     while (head)
     {
         printf ( "%d " , head->data);
         head = head->right;
     }
}
  
//Driver program to test above functions
int main()
{
     //Construting ternary tree as shown in above figure
     Node* root = newNode(30);
  
     root->left = newNode(5);
     root->middle = newNode(11);
     root->right = newNode(63);
  
     root->left->left = newNode(1);
     root->left->middle = newNode(4);
     root->left->right = newNode(8);
  
     root->middle->left = newNode(6);
     root->middle->middle = newNode(7);
     root->middle->right = newNode(15);
  
     root->right->left = newNode(31);
     root->right->middle = newNode(55);
     root->right->right = newNode(65);
  
     Node* head = NULL;
  
     TernaryTreeToList(root, &head);
  
     printList(head);
  
     return 0;
}

Java

//Java program to create a doubly linked list 
//from a given ternary tree.
  
//Custom node class.
class newNode
{
     int data;
     newNode left, middle, right;
     public newNode( int data)
     {
         this .data = data;
         left = middle = right = null ;
     }
}
  
class GFG {
      
     //tail of the linked list.
     static newNode tail; 
  
     //function to push the node to the tail.
     public static void push(newNode node)
     {
         //to put the node at the end of
         //the already existing tail.
         tail.right = node;                 
          
         //to point to the previous node.
         node.left = tail;         
          
         //middle pointer should point to 
         //nothing so null. initiate right
         //pointer to null.
         node.middle = node.right = null ; 
          
         //update the tail position.
         tail = node;             
     }
      
     /* Create a doubly linked list out of given a ternary tree.
     by traversing the tree in preoder fashion. */
     public static void ternaryTree(newNode node, newNode head)
     {
         if (node == null )
             return ;                     
         newNode left = node.left;
         newNode middle = node.middle;
         newNode right = node.right;
         if (tail != node)
          
             //already root is in the tail so dont push 
             //the node when it was root.In the first 
             //case both node and tail have root in them.
             push(node);             
              
         //First the left child is to be taken.
         //Then middle and then right child.
         ternaryTree(left, head);         
         ternaryTree(middle, head);
         ternaryTree(right, head);
     }
  
     //function to initiate the list process.
     public static newNode startTree(newNode root)
     {
         //Initiate the head and tail with root.
         newNode head = root;
         tail = root;
         ternaryTree(root, head);
          
         //since the head, root are passed 
         //with reference the changes in 
         //root will be reflected in head.
         return head;         
     }
      
     //Utility function for printing double linked list.
     public static void printList(newNode head) 
     {
         System.out.print( "Created Double Linked list is:\n" );
         while (head != null )
         {
             System.out.print(head.data + " " );
             head = head.right;
         }
     }
      
     //Driver program to test above functions
     public static void main(String args[])
     {
          
         //Construting ternary tree as shown
         //in above figure
         newNode root = new newNode( 30 );
         root.left = new newNode( 5 );
         root.middle = new newNode( 11 );
         root.right = new newNode( 63 );
         root.left.left = new newNode( 1 );
         root.left.middle = new newNode( 4 );
         root.left.right = new newNode( 8 );
         root.middle.left = new newNode( 6 );
         root.middle.middle = new newNode( 7 );
         root.middle.right = new newNode( 15 );
         root.right.left = new newNode( 31 );
         root.right.middle = new newNode( 55 );
         root.right.right = new newNode( 65 );
          
         //The function which initiates the list 
         //process returns the head.
         newNode head = startTree(root);         
         printList(head);
     }
}
  
//This code is contributed by M.V.S.Surya Teja.

C#

//C# program to create a doubly linked 
//list from a given ternary tree. 
using System;
  
//Custom node class. 
public class newNode
{
     public int data;
     public newNode left, middle, right;
     public newNode( int data)
     {
         this .data = data;
         left = middle = right = null ;
     }
}
  
class GFG
{
  
//tail of the linked list. 
public static newNode tail;
  
//function to push the node to the tail. 
public static void push(newNode node)
{
     //to put the node at the end of 
     //the already existing tail. 
     tail.right = node;
  
     //to point to the previous node. 
     node.left = tail;
  
     //middle pointer should point to 
     //nothing so null. initiate right 
     //pointer to null. 
     node.middle = node.right = null ;
  
     //update the tail position. 
     tail = node;
}
  
/* Create a doubly linked list out 
of given a ternary tree. by traversing
the tree in preoder fashion. */
public static void ternaryTree(newNode node, newNode head)
{
     if (node == null )
     {
         return ;
     }
     newNode left = node.left;
     newNode middle = node.middle;
     newNode right = node.right;
     if (tail != node)
     {
  
         //already root is in the tail so dont push 
         //the node when it was root.In the first 
         //case both node and tail have root in them. 
         push(node);
     }
  
     //First the left child is to be taken. 
     //Then middle and then right child. 
     ternaryTree(left, head);
     ternaryTree(middle, head);
     ternaryTree(right, head);
}
  
//function to initiate the list process. 
public static newNode startTree(newNode root)
{
     //Initiate the head and tail with root. 
     newNode head = root;
     tail = root;
     ternaryTree(root, head);
  
     //since the head, root are passed 
     //with reference the changes in 
     //root will be reflected in head. 
     return head;
}
  
//Utility function for printing 
//double linked list. 
public static void printList(newNode head)
{
     Console.Write( "Created Double Linked list is:\n" );
     while (head != null )
     {
         Console.Write(head.data + " " );
         head = head.right;
     }
}
  
//Driver Code
public static void Main( string [] args)
{
  
     //Construting ternary tree as shown 
     //in above figure 
     newNode root = new newNode(30);
     root.left = new newNode(5);
     root.middle = new newNode(11);
     root.right = new newNode(63);
     root.left.left = new newNode(1);
     root.left.middle = new newNode(4);
     root.left.right = new newNode(8);
     root.middle.left = new newNode(6);
     root.middle.middle = new newNode(7);
     root.middle.right = new newNode(15);
     root.right.left = new newNode(31);
     root.right.middle = new newNode(55);
     root.right.right = new newNode(65);
  
     //The function which initiates the list 
     //process returns the head. 
     newNode head = startTree(root);
     printList(head);
}
}
  
//This code is contributed by Shrikant13

输出如下:

Created Double Linked list is:
30 5 1 4 8 11 6 7 15 63 31 55 65

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